The independent Electoral Commission of India, which is generally well respected, has dealt poorly with previous questions about EVM security. The chair of the Electoral Commission has called the machines “infallible” and “perfect” and has rejected any suggestion that security improvements are even possible. I hope the new study will cause the EC to take a more realistic approach to EVM security.
The researchers got their hands on a real Indian EVM which they were able to examine and analyze. They were unable to extract the software running in the machine (because that would have required rendering the machine unusable for elections, which they had agreed not to do) so their analysis focused on the hardware. They were able to identify several attacks that manipulated the hardware, either by replacing components or by clamping something on to a chip on the motherboard to modify votes. They implemented demonstration attacks, actually building proof-of-concept substitute hardware and vote-manipulation devices.
Perhaps the most interesting aspect of India’s EVMs is how simple they are. Simplicity is a virtue in security as in engineering generally, and researchers (including me) who have studied US voting machines have advocated simplifying their design. India’s EVMs show that while simplicity is good, it’s not enough. Unless there is some way to audit or verify the votes, even a simple system is subject to manipulation.
If you’re interested in the details, please read the team’s paper.
The ball is now in the Election Commission’s court. Let’s hope that they take steps to address the EVM problems, to give the citizens of the world’s largest democracy the transparent and accurate elections they deserve.