March 1, 2015

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A clear line between offense and defense

The New York Times, in an editorial today entitled “Arms Control for a Cyberage“, writes,

The problem is that unlike conventional weapons, with cyberweapons “there’s no clear line between offense and defense,” as President Obama noted this month in an interview with Re/code, a technology news publication. Defense in cyberwarfare consists of pre-emptively locating the enemy’s weakness, which means getting into its networks.

This is simply wrong.
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Expert Panel Report: A New Governance Model for Communications Security?

Today, the vulnerable state of electronic communications security dominates headlines across the globe, while surveillance, money and power increasingly permeate the ‘cybersecurity’ policy arena. With the stakes so high, how should communications security be regulated? Deirdre Mulligan (UC Berkeley), Ashkan Soltani (independent, Washington Post), Ian Brown (Oxford) and Michel van Eeten (TU Delft) weighed in on this proposition at an expert panel on my doctoral project at the Amsterdam Information Influx conference. [Read more...]

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“Loopholes for Circumventing the Constitution”, the NSA Statement, and Our Response

CBS News and a host of other outlets have covered my new paper with Sharon Goldberg, Loopholes for Circumventing the Constitution: Warrantless Bulk Surveillance on Americans by Collecting Network Traffic Abroad. We’ll present the paper on July 18 at HotPETS [slides, pdf], right after a keynote by Bill Binney (the NSA whistleblower), and at TPRC in September. Meanwhile, the NSA has responded to our paper in a clever way that avoids addressing what our paper is actually about. [Read more...]

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Will Greenwald’s New Book Reveal How to Conduct Warrantless Bulk Surveillance on Americans from Abroad?

Tomorrow, Glenn Greenwald’s highly anticipated book ‘No Place to Hide’ goes on sale. Apart from personal accounts on working with whisteblower Edward Snowden in Hong Kong and elsewhere, Mr. Greenwald announced that he will reveal new surveillance operations by Western intelligence agencies. In the last weeks, Sharon Goldberg and I have been finishing a paper on Executive Order 12333 (“EO 12333”). We argue that EO 12333 creates legal loopholes for U.S. authorities to circumvent the U.S. Constitution and conduct largely unchecked and unrestrained bulk surveillance of American communications from abroad. In addition, we present several known and new technical means to exploit those legal loopholes. Today, we publish a summary of our new paper in this post.

We stress that we’re not in a position to suggest that U.S. authorities are actually structurally circumventing the Constitution using the international loophole we discuss in the paper.  But, we’re wondering: will the gist of our analysis be part of Greenwald’s new revelations tomorrow? A first snippet of Greenwald’s new book in The Guardian, about hacking American routers destined for use overseas, seems to point in that direction. Here’s our summary. [Read more...]

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Signing Mass Surveillance Declarations and Petitions: Should Academics Take a Stance?

Quite often, especially since the Snowden revelations began, tech policy academics will be approached by NGO’s and colleagues to sign petitions ‘to end mass surveillance’. It’s not always easy to decide whether you want to sign. If you’re an academic, you might want to consider co-signing one initiative launched today. [Read more...]

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The Politics of the EU Court Data Retention Opinion: End to Mass Surveillance?

The Wall Street Journal headlines: “EU Court Opinion: Data Retention Directive Incompatible With Fundamental Rights”. The Opinion is strong, but in fact not yet an outright victory to privacy and civil liberties. The jury is out: the Opinion is a non-binding, but influential advice to the E.U. Court, that will deliver its final judgment come next spring. Now is a perfect moment to analyze the Opinion, as well as the institutional politics of the E.U. Court — critical in understanding the two-tier approach to surveillance and fundamental rights in Europe. The two-tier approach converges, after 60 years, when the E.U. accedes to the European Convention of Human Rights anytime soon. Amidst the Snowden revelations, these are the fundamental legal developments that will ultimately answer the question whether European law can end mass surveillance.

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NSA Strategy 2012-16: Outsourcing Compliance to Algorithms, and What to Do About It

Over the weekend, two new NSA documents revealed a confident NSA SIGINT strategy for the coming years and a vast increase of NSA-malware infected networks across the globe. The excellent reporting overlooked one crucial development: constitutional compliance will increasingly be outsourced to algorithms. Meaningful oversight of intelligence practises must address this, or face collateral constitutional damage. [Read more...]

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When an Ethnographer met Edward Snowden

If you talk about ‘metadata’, ‘big data’ and ‘Big Brother’ just as easily as you order a pizza, ethnography and anthropology are probably not your first points of reference. But the outcome of a recent encounter of ethnographer Tom Boellstorff and Edward Snowden (not IRL but IRP), is that tech policy wonks and researchers should be careful with their day to day vocabulary, as concepts carry politics of control and power.

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U.S. Citizenship and N.S.A. Surveillance – Legal Safeguard or Practical Backdoor?

The main takeaway of two recent disclosures around N.S.A. surveillance practices, is that Americans must re-think ‘U.S. citizenship’ as the guiding legal principle to protect against untargeted surveillance of their communications. Currently, U.S. citizens may get some comfort through the usual political discourse that ‘ordinary Americans’ are protected, and this is all about foreigners. In this post, I’ll argue that this is not the case, that the legal backdoor of U.S. Citizenship is real and that relying on U.S. citizenship for protection is not in America’s interests. As a new CITP Fellow and a first time contributor to this amazing blog, I’ll introduce myself and my research interests along the way.   [Read more...]

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You found a security hole. Now what?

The recent conviction of Andrew “Weev” Auernheimer for identity theft and conspiracy has renewed interest in the question of what researchers should do when they find security vulnerabilities in popular products. See, for example, Matt Blaze’s op-ed on how the research community views these matters, and Weev’s own response.

Weev and associates discovered a flaw in AT&T’s handling of consumer information, which allowed anyone to download personal information about users of AT&T’s iPad wireless data service. Weev wrote code that systematically downloaded information on more than 100,000 of those users. Was that enough to get him convicted? Reading between the lines in press accounts, it’s clear that that behavior, plus Weev’s long history of unsavory (though lawful) online speech and his personal eccentricities, were enough to get him convicted.

This will only make researchers more cautious about public discussion of vulnerabilities–which is a shame, because the research community is one of the main sources of public pressure on companies to follow better security practices. Though some companies seem to ignore or downplay security problems in their products–see Jeremy’s recent post for one example–the flow of information about the presence of vulnerabilities plays an important role in helping the market reward good security and punish laxity.
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