May 22, 2018

Workshop on Technical Applications of Contextual Integrity

The theory of contextual integrity (CI) has inspired work across the legal, privacy, computer science and HCI research communities.  Recognizing common interests and common challenges, the time seemed ripe for a meeting to discuss what we have learned from the projects using CI and how to move forward to leverage CI for enhancing privacy preserving systems and policies. On 11 December, 2017  the Center for Information Technology Policy hosted an inaugural workshop on Technical Applications of Contextual Integrity. The workshop gathered over twenty researchers from Princeton University, New York University, Cornell Tech, University of Maryland, Data & Society, and AI Now to present their ongoing and completed projects, discuss and share ideas, and explore successes and challenges when using the CI framework. The meeting, which included faculty, postdocs, and graduate students, was kicked off with a welcome and introduction by Ed Felten, CITP Director.

The agenda comprised of two main parts. In the first half of the workshop, representatives of various projects gave a short presentation on the status of their work, describe any challenges encountered, and lessons learned in the process. The second half included a planning session of a full day event to take place in the Spring to allow for a bigger discussion and exchange of ideas.

The workshop presentations touched on a wide variety of topics which included: ways operationalizing CI, discovering contextual norms behind children’s online activities, capturing users’ expectation towards smart toys and smart-home devices, as well as demonstrating how CI can be used to analyze regulation acts, applying CI to establish research ethics guidelines, conceptualizing privacy within common government arrangement.

More specifically:

Yan Shvartzshnaider discussed Verifiable and ACtionable Contextual Integrity Norms Engine (VACCINE), a framework for building adaptable and modular Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) systems.

Darakshan Mir discussed a framework for community-based participatory framework for discovery of contextual informational norms in small and veranubale communities.

Sebastian Benthall shared the key takeaways from conducting a survey on existing computer science literature work that uses Contextual Integrity.

Paula Kift discussed how the theory of contextual Integrity can be used to analyze the recently passed Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA) to reveals some fundamental gaps in the way it conceptualizes privacy.

Ben Zevenbergen talked about his work on applying the theory of contextual integrity to help establish guidelines for Research Ethics.

Madelyn Sanfilippo discussed conceptualizing privacy within a commons governance arrangement using Governing Knowledge Commons (GKC) framework.

Priya Kumar presented recent work on using the Contextual Integrity to identify gaps in children’s online privacy knowledge.

Sarah Varghese and Noah Apthorpe discussed their works on discovering privacy norms in IoT Devices using Contextual Integrity.

The roundtable discussion covered a wide range of open questions such as what are the limitations of CI as a theory, possible extensions, integration into other frameworks, conflicting interpretations of the CI parameters, possible research directions, and interesting collaboration ideas.

This a first attempt to see how much interest there is from the wider research community in a CI-focused event. We were overwhelmed with the incredible response! The participants expressed huge interest in the bigger event in Spring 2018 and put forward a number of suggestions for the format of the workshop.  The initial idea is to organize the bigger workshop as a co-joint event with an established conference, another suggestion was to have it as part of a hands-on workshop that brings together industry and academia. We are really excited about the event that will bring together a large sample of CI-related research work both academically and geographically which will allow a much broader discussion. 

The ultimate goal of this and other future initiatives is to foster communication between the various communities of researchers and practitioners using the theory of CI as a framework to reason about privacy and a language for sharing of ideas.

For the meantime, please check out the website that will serve as a central repository for news, up to date related work for the community. We will be updating it in coming months.

We look forward to your feedback and suggestions. If you’re interested in hearing about the Spring workshop or presenting your work, want to help or have any suggestion please get in touch!

Twitter: @privaci_way


Website operators are in the dark about privacy violations by third-party scripts

by Steven Englehardt, Gunes Acar, and Arvind Narayanan.

Recently we revealed that “session replay” scripts on websites record everything you do, like someone looking over your shoulder, and send it to third-party servers. This en-masse data exfiltration inevitably scoops up sensitive, personal information — in real time, as you type it. We released the data behind our findings, including a list of 8,000 sites on which we observed session-replay scripts recording user data.

As one case study of these 8,000 sites, we found health conditions and prescription data being exfiltrated from These are considered Protected Health Information under HIPAA. The number of affected sites is immense; contacting all of them and quantifying the severity of the privacy problems is beyond our means. We encourage you to check out our data release and hold your favorite websites accountable.

Student data exfiltration on Gradescope

As one example, a pair of researchers at UC San Diego read our study and then noticed that Gradescope, a website they used for grading assignments, embeds FullStory, one of the session replay scripts we analyzed. We investigated, and sure enough, we found that student names and emails, student grades, and instructor comments on students were being sent to FullStory’s servers. This is considered Student Data under FERPA (US educational privacy law). Ironically, Princeton’s own Information Security course was also affected. We notified Gradescope of our findings, and they removed FullStory from their website within a few hours.
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